|AUTHORS||Naghmeh Altmann-Mavaddat, Gunther Taufratzhofer, Georg Trnka, Wolfgang Jilek, Günter Simader|
The implementation of the EPBD (Directive 2010/31/EU) in Austria has been completed by the nine (9) provinces (Länder). It formed an opportunity for the development and harmonisation of a common calculation methodology, as well as for the application of new regulations for technical building systems. The issuance of EPCs was already a fact in several provinces even before implementing the EPBD. The EPBD implementation has resulted in further developed building regulations.
Following the implementation of the EPBD as well as signing into law the mandatory provision of the EPC (the Energy Performance Certificate Providence Act) in April 2012, which applies to apartment or building purchases and rentals, and its tightening through the imposition of penalties for non‐compliance later that same year, the EPC has become an important tool.
The Austrian national plan for increasing the number of residential and non-residential NZEB by 2020 was finalised and published in 2014. The national building regulation directive (OIB-Directive 6) as regards energy efficiency is being tightened in two-year steps to achieve the requirements by 2020. The recast of OIB-Directive 6 was published in spring 2015. Furthermore, defining national goals for 2030 and beyond – based on the Paris climate conference agreement which entered into force in 2016 – has already started in Austria.
In Austria, the implementation of building regulations is under the jurisdiction of the provinces. The Austrian Institute of Construction Engineering (OIB) was assigned to manage the harmonising process of the implementation of the EPBD in the provinces in 2006. The outcome is the OIB Directive, whose contents are implemented in each respective province’s building regulations. The recent OIB Directive 61 was published in March 2015. This directive defines the format of the EPCs and the requirements for the thermal performance of the building envelope, domestic hot water and parts of the technical heating and cooling systems.
Requirements in the OIB Directive 6 for residential buildings differ to those for non-residential (public or commercial) buildings only in including requirements for the maximum energy demand for cooling. The remaining parameters regarding U-values, space-heating demand, the energy efficiency factor, heating and final energy demand are the same for residential and non-residential buildings.
U‐values requirements of the different building elements in the new OIB Directive (2015) are the same as in the former version (2011). The maximum space heating demand requirement is tightened and requirements for heating energy demand and final energy demand, as well as a total energy efficiency factor are now included. The implementation date of the OIB Directive 6 2015 in the building regulations differs in the nine Austrian provinces. Therefore, there are two different effective dates mentioned according to minimum requirements: one valid from entry into force in the Austrian Province until the end of 2016 and one valid starting from 2017 (which is more tightened).
The minimum requirements for residential buildings are now either:
Ref: Reference space heating demand for reference climate
Table 1. Maximum requirements for the energy performance of new residential buildings by heating energy demand.
a combination of space heating demand and final energy efficiency factor.
Ref: Reference space heating demand for reference climate
Table 2. Maximum requirements for the energy performance of new residential buildings by total energy efficiency factor.
The minimum requirements for non-residential buildings are either:
a combination of space heating demand, heating and cooling energy demand, lighting, humidification and dehumidification and final energy demand;
Ref: Reference space heating demand for reference climate
Table 3. Maximum requirements for the energy performance of new non-residential buildings by heating energy demand.
a combination of space heating and cooling demand and final energy efficiency factor.
Ref: Reference space heating demand for reference climate
Table 4. Maximum requirements for the energy performance of new non-residential buildings by total energy efficiency factor
Furthermore, the OIB Directive 6 (2015) sets additional requirements concerning the use of RES in buildings and includes measures for the protection of the internal building elements (e.g., walls) against harmful condensation resulting from thermal bridges as well as improved protection against summer overheating for both residential and non-residential buildings.
The revised OIB Directive 6 was published in March 2015.
Following the requirements of this directive, the calculation method is based on Austrian Standards (ÖNORMs), created by the Austrian Standard institute which is represented in CEN; therefore, the standards used in the OIB Directive 6 are in accordance with the European Committee for Standardisation.
The main indicators for the energy performance calculation of buildings (space heating demand, useful energy demand, final energy demand, primary energy demand and CO2 emissions), maximum U-value of the building elements, geometry of the building, energy carriers, heating/cooling systems and domestic hot water systems as well as household appliances are defined in the OIB Directive 6 or respectively in Austrian Standards (the OIB Directive 6 refers according to user profiles for lighting, ventilation, humidification to valid Austrian Standards).
The determination of the required maximum space heating demand is based on the cost-optimal verification report2.
The conversion factors for the energy carriers in the calculation of the primary energy demand have slightly changed to match the electricity mix of the Austrian market.
Table 5. The conversion factor of energy carriers in the OIB Directive 6, 2015.
The first draft of the Austrian national plan on increasing the number of NZEB by 2020 was published in 2012 for residential buildings and 2014 for non-residential buildings, according to OIB3. This document was agreed by all nine (9) federal provinces and their requirements were implemented in the regional building regulations successively until January 2017.
The NZEB is defined as an energy-efficient building with a thermally well-insulated envelope and an efficient heating system.
The minimum requirements for the energy performance of NZEB are shown in Tables 6-9.
Compliance with the requirements of the OIB Directive 6 can be achieved by two methods:
Through the provision of the maximum permissible final energy demand of the building. In this case the focus relies on the insurance of a tight building envelope in order to reduce the space heating demand (HWB) (not considering the fGEE factor).
Through the installation of a very efficient or renewable heating system. In this case the total energy efficiency factor (fGEE) has to be taken into account, which reflects the type of energy use and production. In this method, a slightly higher space heating demand of the building is acceptable.
In both cases, the maximum values for primary energy demand and CO2 emissions are defined.
Table 6. Minimum energy performance requirements for new residential NZEB, 2020.
Table 7. Minimum energy performance requirements for new non-residential NZEB, 2020.
Table 8. Minimum energy performance requirements for existing residential buildings in the case of major renovation to NZEB, 2020.
Table 9. Minimum energy performance requirements for existing non-residential buildings in the case of major renovation to NZEB, 2020.
|HWB: Space (useful) heating demand||EEB: Final energy demand||fGEE: Total energy efficiency factor||PEB: Primary energy demand||CO2: CO2 emission|
|HTEB: Heating system - Auxiliary energy demand for the heating system||lc: characteristic length of the building or building shape factor (V/A) [m]|
In the past 15 years, considerable efforts have been made to reduce energy consumption in the building sector. Implementing new building regulations for the energy demand of buildings and providing subsidies for energy efficiency measures in new buildings and renovations are considered the engine for implementing energy efficiency. This has contributed to the increase in the number of buildings with low energy consumption. There are, however, no statistics on the number of buildings meeting the NZEB 2020 requirements yet. The following are two best-practice examples of built NZEB in Austria.
Type of building: primary school Mariagrün in Graz, Styria
Space Heating Demand: 11 kWh/m².year
Primary Energy Demand: 86 kWh/m².year
2,500 m² gross floor area
Year of construction: 2014
Figure 1. Best-practice examples of built NZEB in Austria, Picture: Kurt Hoerbst, Source: BMLFUW.
Type of building: residential building in the 11. district of Vienna
Space Heating Demand: 14 kWh/m².year
Primary Energy Demand: 55 kWh/m².year
11,645 m2 gross floor area
Year of construction: 2013
Figure 2. Best-practice examples of built NZEB in Austria, Picture: Kurt Hoerbst, Source: BMLFUW.
The maximum U-values for building components are set by the OIB Directive 6. They apply for new residential and non-residential buildings (see Figure 3).
Figure 3. A selection of U-values of the OIB Directive 6.
Furthermore, the OIB 6 Directive requires that energy systems of buildings must consider and demonstrate the technological, ecological and economic feasibility of high-efficient systems. In this context, new apartment buildings with more than three (3) building units must have central heating systems (specific exceptions are allowed) and ventilation systems must be equipped with a heat recovery system.
The OIB Directive 6 includes requirements for heating, cooling and final energy demand for existing buildings undergoing major renovations.
Tables 10 and 11 show the minimum requirements for the energy efficiency of residential buildings, either as a combination of the requirements of space heating demand, heating energy demand and final energy demand (Table 10), or, alternatively, as a combination of space heating demand and final energy efficiency factor (Table 11).
Ref: Reference space heating demand for reference climate
Table 10. Maximum value requirements for the energy performance of major renovations of existing residential buildings by heating energy demand.
Ref: Reference space heating demand for reference climate
Table 11. Maximum value requirements for the energy performance of major renovations of existing residential buildings by total energy efficiency factor.
Respectively, Tables 12 and 13 show the minimum requirements for the energy efficiency of non-residential buildings in the case of major renovations, either as the combination of space heating demand, heating and cooling energy demand and final energy demand (Table 12), or, as the combination of space heating and cooling demand and final energy efficiency factor (Table 13):
Ref: Reference space heating demand for reference climate
Table 12. Maximum value requirements for the energy performance of major renovations of existing non-residential buildings by heating energy demand.
Table 13. Maximum value requirements for the energy performance of major renovations of existing non-residential buildings by total energy efficiency factor.
The national plan (March 2014) also defines minimum requirements for residential and non‐residential buildings undergoing major renovations valid from 1 January 2021. Deviations to these requirements may be undertaken if necessary measures are not feasible4.
The requirements for turning existing buildings into NZEB by 2020 were published in 20145.
The first Austrian National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP), developed by the Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy together with the Austrian provinces, was published in April 2014 according to Article 4 of Directive 2012/27/EU (Energy Efficiency Directive - EED). This plan describes the way towards increasing energy efficiency and standardising the energy efficiency regulations in Austria until 2020, and envisages the increase in demand for energy-efficient services, reduction of energy consumption and simultaneously fighting energy poverty while avoiding nuclear energy. Additionally, the government shall set a good example by speeding up the implementation of energy efficiency in public buildings. Through these measures, the government aims to reduce energy consumption by 20% compared to 2007 (equivalent to 1,100 Peta J; the present target based on the Energy Efficiency Act is 1,050 Peta J).
The measures for the building sector focus on the following categories:
subsidies for residential buildings (e.g., a renovation subsidy like the “Sanierungscheck”);
subsidies for district heating (e.g., for the installation of a heat transfer station);
operational and environmental subsidy schemes for companies in Austria (e.g., subsidies for PV installations);
energy efficiency measures in building regulations (e.g., further development of the OIB Directive 6).
In addition to the aforementioned requirements, the OIB Directive 6 also includes specific mandatory requirements for individual elements used in connection with the renovation of existing buildings, such as minimum requirements for the insulation of the heat distribution system.
Furthermore, Directive 2009/125/EG (the Eco design Directive) includes specific requirements for HVAC systems to guarantee the implementation of energy-efficient technologies. This directive enables the European Commission to set mandatory minimum requirements for individual product groups. In Austria, the implementation of Directive 2009/125/EG was provided by the update of the national Eco design decree (“Ökodesign-Verordnung” 2007). The following relevant mandatory requirements for HVAC systems came into force by decree between 2015 and 2016:
The decree for space heaters and combination heaters came into force on 26 September 2015, including specific requirements for seasonal space heating energy efficiency, sound power level, emissions of nitrogen oxides and product information (Regulation 107/2009).
The decree for water heaters and hot water storage tanks came into force on 26 September 2015, including specific requirements for water heating energy efficiency, sound power level, emissions of nitrogen oxides and product information. Furthermore, the decree includes requirements for standing losses and product information for hot water storage tanks (Regulation 814/2013).
The decree for ventilation units came into force on 1 January 2016, including specific requirements for energy efficiency, sound power level and product information (Regulation 1253/2014).
In Austria, metering is one of the regulated activities (§ 45 Z 10 ElWOG “Elektrizitätswirtschafts- und –organisationsgesetz: Electricity Industry and Organisation Act” 2010) of the electricity distribution system operators (DSOs). There is a similar decree regulating gas distribution system operators (§ 60 GWG 2011) and a law concerning the metering of heat and hot water consumption (§6 HeizKG “Heizkostenabrechnungsgesetz”).
The majority of the 6.1 million electrical metering points are still equipped with conventional electromechanical meters. Since the full liberalisation of the electricity market in 2001, about 30,000 customers with an annual consumption of more than 100,000 kWh and a power rating of more than 50 kW have been equipped with intelligent meters. In an amendment to the Austrian Electricity Act (ElWOG) in 2011, the Minister for Economy was authorised to determine a mandatory rollout plan for intelligent electricity meters. In 2012, the Minister of Economy enacted a decree which obliges the DSOs to install intelligent meters. This decree was amended in 2014 and determines the following programme for the rollout:
By the end of 2015 all network operators had to submit a rollout plan.
Seventy per cent (70%) of all customers have to be equipped with intelligent meters by the end of 2017.
Ninety per cent (90%) of all customers have to be equipped by the end of 2019.
There are additional decrees of the Energy Regulatory Authority (E-Control Austria), which specify, for example, the technical requirements of intelligent meters.
By the end of 2015, the majority of the Austrian DSOs were in an early rollout stage. About 456,000 customers (7.4% of all customers) were already equipped with intelligent meters. The network operators had another 285,000 intelligent meters already in stock to be installed in 20166.
Due to delays in the rollout, it is expected that the intended implementation rates for 2017 and 2019 will not be achieved. Estimations of the Energy Regulatory Authority assume that by the end of 2017 about 25%, and by the end of 2019 about 70% of customers will have intelligent meters.
This means that the national targets will likely be missed, but the expected developments indicate that the EU target of 80% by 2020 according to Directive 2009/72/EG, Annex I, can be reached.
There are no comparable obligations for installing intelligent meters for gas in Austria for the time being.
In Austria, a large number of renovations, especially in the residential sector, are financially supported by subsidy programmes7 provided by the Austrian provinces. The conditions under which these subsidies are granted focus on the improvement of building quality in terms of higher comfort and better energy performance (i.e., buildings with lower space heating demand and lower greenhouse gas emissions). Most subsidies are distributed in the form of non-refundable payments (one-time non-repayable investment expense).
Federal subsidies8 (national schemes) on building renovations have been provided since 2009 for privately owned single-family households. The renovation campaign of 2016 (“Sanierungscheck” 2016) grants financial support for the thermal insulation of roofs, external walls, floors, replacement of windows and exterior doors and for changing the heating system into a renewable heating system. The available grant of federal subsidies lies between 3,000 and 5,000 € depending on the level of renovation (either according to OIB Directive 6 or with higher quality according to klimaaktiv9 criteria). For the first time in 2016 it was possible to obtain increased funding within the scope of a "best-practice renovation"10, particularly for sustainable thermal renovation measures. In this case, the space heating demand had to be very low11 and 80% of the energy demand had to be provided by renewable energy carriers. For this kind of renovation, up to 8,000 € of funding could be granted per building. In apartment buildings the grant amounts to a maximum of 30% of investments for thermal renovation12.
There is also a list of on-going individual initiatives in the Austrian provinces. Salzburg, for example, provides a cost-free online energy accounting system for building owners and managers. This programme encourages the stakeholders to enter the real energy consumption of their building into the database and to obtain an annual or monthly overview of their energy consumption. By this initative, the energy consumption of buildings can be monitored both by the owner and by the province13. The aim of this initiative is to raise the awareness of the consumers and thus to increase renovation activities.
Since the introduction of the EPBD, comprehensive efforts (annual energy and building exhibitions14, congresses15 and international conferences and competitions16) have been undertaken in Austria to provide information to the public and to professionals. The Austrian regions and their regional energy agencies develop and implement training programmes for different target groups in the building sector and offer comprehensive information campaigns, competitions and energy advice services for building owners and users. For example, the “Energy Academy” in Upper Austria offers more than 30 courses every year on building-related technologies and services. In the context of the “Arge Eba”, the nine (9) Austrian regions offer standardised training for energy advisers17.
The Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management’s “klimaaktiv” initiative and especially its “Building and renovation” programme (launched in 2008) is a main promoter of energy efficiency in buildings in Austria. Since 2012, the yearly granted state prize for architecture and sustainability18 is awarded to outstanding achievements in energy-efficient buildings.
The ministry also organises a climate protection prize in cooperation with the Austrian television every year where projects or companies are awarded regarding their contribution to environmental issues and relating to the energy efficiency of buildings. An expert jury nominates four (4) projects from four (4) categories: daily life, agriculture, community and regions, and businesses. The Austrian national television (ORF) presents the nominees and the chosen winners in a big event. The ninth climate protection prize took place in November 2016.
Figure 4. The Austrian climate protection prize.
The format and content of an EPC is defined by the OIB Directive 6. This directive recommends the use of four (4) indicators (space heating demand, primary energy demand, CO2 emissions and a final energy efficiency factor) on the cover page of the EPC.
In some Austrian provinces, EPCs have been issued for buildings (as a basis for granting subsidies) for many years. In Austria, issuing an EPC became mandatory in 2012 through the federal law “Energieausweis‐Vorlage‐Gesetz”19 at the point of sale or rent of a building or building unit following the implementation of the EPBD (Directive 2010/31/EU). An EPC has to be provided for both residential and non-residential buildings (commercial and public) and is valid for ten (10) years. An EPC also has to be issued when applying for a building permit for a new construction and for major renovations, as well as for requesting subsidies.
In December 2012, the Federal Law Gazette I No. 137/2006 and its recast No. 27/2012 (EAVG) was tightened by implementing a penalty (up to 1,450 €) if an EPC is not provided by the owner in the case of selling or renting a property.
The Austrian provinces regularly conduct random automated EPC controls. EPCs issued for receiving subsidies or for building permits are checked by the authorities in detail as part of the subsidy approval process. If major errors are identified, the EPC is sent back for corrections.
Displaying the front page (including the labelling) of EPCs in buildings frequently visited by the public is mandatory in all federal provinces. EPCs are displayed in all public buildings owned by public authorities and visited by the public (including the buildings managed by the Federal Real Estate Company (BIG).
The format and content of the EPC for public buildings is also defined in the OIB Directive 6 and follows the same methodology as the EPC for non-residential buildings.
Since 2012, if a building or building unit is advertised (either in print or online) for sale or rent, the space heating demand and the total energy efficiency factor (fGEE) must be provided.
Articles 14 and 15 of the EPBD (Directive 2010/31/EU) have been implemented according to an agreement20 between Austrian provinces regarding regular on-site inspections and monitoring of the emissions of HVAC systems.
Corresponding inspection reports or protocols are collected by the provinces and are made available for inspectors of the provinces (e.g., chimney sweeps which are traditionally responsible for the inspection of boilers).
The Austrian provinces have a long tradition of inspections of heating systems regarding emissions and the performance of boilers. The periods of inspections vary based on the kind of energy used, from one (1) inspection per year (e.g., for biomass boilers) up to four (4) inspections per year (e.g., for gas-fired boilers). Regular inspections fulfilling the specifications of the EPBD were introduced after 2012 by different regulations in the Austrian provinces (the legislative regulations are continually being adapted).
The qualification of inspectors is set in the Austrian trade regulation act (“Gewerbeordnung”) on a national level.
Up until the late 1990s, AC systems were rarely used in Austria except in new non-residential buildings. As a result of the EPBD, performance-related requirements were implemented for new and existing systems.
Vienna started implementing some articles on AC systems in a law concerning the performance and inspection of heating systems (> 20 kW), including dimensioning of boilers and cooling systems (> 12 kW). The other Austrian provinces followed by implementing inspections through different regulations, either by modifying existing clean air acts or laws for heating systems (Burgenland, Tyrol, Vienna) or building codes (Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Vorarlberg), or by ratifying a new act (Upper Austria).
Inspection intervals range from one (1) to three (3) years for a simplified procedure (visual inspection) and from five (5) to 12 years for an additional comprehensive inspection (including a complex performance check: Upper Austria, Styria, and Vienna). Lower Austria, Salzburg and Tyrol provide one (1) inspection every five (5) years.
For the enforcement of inspection laws, penalties are imposed under the relevant laws of some of the Austrian provinces21, but there are no statistical data indicating frequency and level of penalties, which have yet to be imposed.
The Austrian provinces conduct quality controls of inspections reports regularly. Some of the Austrian provinces had combined the first full inspections of heating systems with an information and formation action for inspectors22, thus controlling the quality of inspections (mentioned above) and of the inspectors as well. These actions had been supervised by the administrations of the provinces. Results show that many installations had hydraulic problems or had inefficient pumps and/or oversized boilers.
Further information campaigns are based on the results of these actions. The process of quality control is still under development in Austria.
There are no statistical data about the impact of the regular inspections of heating systems corresponding to the requirements of Article 14, but it can be asserted that the effect of the additional requirements is overestimated and not as important as the savings potential, which could already be earned by the emission limits and minimum performance requirements. Furthermore, Directive 2009/125/EG includes specific requirements for heating systems to guarantee the implementation of energy-efficient technologies.
The EPBD (Directive 2010/31/EU) stipulates that buildings have to be built and used more energy efficiently. The national implementation of the EPBD is mainly realised by the OIB Directive 6. The OIB Directive 6 is successively applied through the regional building regulations and directives. It sets the framework for the buildings’ energy performance and defines NZEB 2020. The NZEB standard sets requirements for the efficiency of both new buildings and major renovations as regards the building envelope, heating and cooling systems and energy supply.
The OIB Directive 6 was revised in 2015 and the requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings were tightened. The current directive defines not only the lowered maximum space heating demand for new buildings but also the minimum share of the renewable energy carriers in new buildings (starting 1 January 2017).
Furthermore, the EPC calculation tools are being optimised by more precise methods in order to meet the new requirements for energy efficiency.
The implementation of Article 12 of Directive 2010/31/EU regarding the provision of EPCs is set by the federal law (“Energieausweis‐Vorlage‐Gesetz”). The energy performance of the buildings through their EPCs contributes to raising awareness in the real estate market and makes the expected energy costs more transparent. Therefore, energy efficiency and building quality become more relevant for consumers.
Raising awareness is also achieved through promotion activities, information campaigns and awarding best-practice examples. Thanks to these activities, the heating demand of buildings, especially residential buildings, has decreased continuously (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Development of space heating demand of new buildings and major renovations for subsidy schemes in the Austrian provinces. Source: Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management 2016, UBA.
The stronger energy efficiency requirements for buildings according to the EPBD (targets for 2020) have driven the building sector towards decarbonisation. In this context, the implementation of complementary tools and control systems (such as the EPC, its implementation, and the carrying out of inspections) are the foundation for harmonising building regulations across federal provinces.
Austria has taken many steps to fulfil the requirements set out by the EPBD. The national implementation of the EPBD and attaining the Austrian energy efficiency and climate protection goals determine important efficiency criteria for buildings, either newly built or renovated.
All articles of Directive 2010/31/EU have been implemented in the building regulations in all Austrian provinces. The definition of NZEB for 2020 for residential and non‐residential buildings has been defined in a national plan23 which contains the minimum requirements for new buildings and major renovations. A further recast of the OIB Directive 6 (2015) is presently under preparation.
The Austrian regions and their regional energy agencies offer comprehensive information campaigns, competitions and energy advice services for building owners and users as well as international conferences. They develop and implement training programmes for different target groups in the building sector.
Also, the Austrian klimaaktiv24 initiative, which is the Austrian climate protection programme, promotes voluntary quality standards for buildings (for new constructions and renovations as well as infrastructure, ecological building construction materials and indoor air quality). Furthermore, the Austrian klimaaktiv initiative provides training for professionals and disseminates information to home owners and companies. Since 2004 the initiative is one of the most influential systems for implementing energy efficiency. Every year projects are awarded equally for their architectural value as well as their quality with respect to ecology, energy use, and social and economic sustainability in this programme. The klimaaktiv platform will continue setting best practice examples for the promotion of sustainability in buildings.
At present, the Austrian government is working on the goals for 2030 and beyond (2050). Different scenarios for this time period show a high range of potentials for the reduction of GHG emissions in the building sector. These potentials focus mainly on energy-efficient renovations and energy-efficient household appliances. The reduction of energy (mainly space heating demand) for the residential and non-residential sector is still the main factor for reaching the goals of 2030 and beyond.
In order to achieve the ambitious climate goals, increasing the rate of renovations as well as achieving a high energy performance in the construction and renovations of buildings is necessary. The renovation necessity increases due to building age and constant associated repair and maintenance measures. Therefore, it is necessary to implement ambitious renovation standards at the earliest possible stage. In addition to the reduction of space heating demand, increasing the use of energy-efficient heating systems and RES are very important measures to reduce GHG emissions in the building sector. By all accounts, the increased launching of subsidies for environmentally friendly buildings supports the achievement of these goals.
Implementing the ambitious goals of the Paris Agreement (COP21) is being achieved in many ways in Austria. Currently, Austria is transforming the recently developed “green paper for an integrated energy and climate strategy”25, into a more concrete strategy (white paper)26. This strategy will consider key issues for energy systems as regards scenarios for future developments for both 2030 and the long-term perspective (2050).
OIB Directive 6: Energy saving and heat retention of both residential and non‐residential buildings, March 2015.
"OIB-Dokument zum Nachweis der Kostenoptimalität der Anforderungen der OIB-RL6 bzw. des Nationalen Plans gemäß Artikel 4 (2) zu 2010/31/EU)“, which was published in 2013.
www.oib.or.at/sites/default/files/nationaler_plan.pdf, published in March 2014, last access 4 January 2017.
Because of construction reasons or building law.
OIB national plan, March 2014.
E-Control Austria, 2016.
‘Wohnbauförderung’: residential building subsidy.
National Sanierungscheck 2016: renovation cheque.
klimaaktiv is the Austrian climate protection initiative and part of the Austrian climate strategy and is on voluntary basis.
Reduced to 40 kWh/m².year or lower.
This amount is a maximum of 3,000 € per building unit: www.umweltfoerderung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/media/umweltfoerderung/Dokumente_Private/TGS_Priv_2017/infoblatt_mgw_sanierungsscheck2017.pdf
Right now over 1,500 buildings are participating in this programme.
www.klimaaktiv.at/bauen-sanieren/staatspreis.html, last access 4 January 2017.
EAVG: Federal Law Gazette I No. 137/2006 and its recast No. 27/2012.
Agreement Art. 15a B, -VG for small combustion plants, combustion plants and CHP plant.
E.g., in Carinthia, up to 4,000 € or Styria, up to 20,000 €.
Like Carinthia: 2,500 inspections; Styria: 1,000 inspections.
www.oib.or.at/de/guidelines/oib-richtlinie-6-nationaler-plan, last access 4 January 2017.
www.klimaaktiv.at, last access 4 January 2017.
C. Maurer et. al: green book for an integrated energy and climate strategy, Hrsg: Vienna, May 2016 www.bmwfw.gv.at/EnergieUndBergbau/EnergiestrategieUndEnergiepolitik/Documents/Gr%c3%bcnbuch%20integrierte%20Energiestrategie.pdf, last access 4 January 2017.
https://konsultation-energie-klima.at, last access 4 January 2017.